Student Political activism in third world.
Reviewed by:Ejaz Baba
(Central Committee member BSAC)
Student political activism remains a key issue for third world universities.Because third world student activism is a complex phenomenon which has important implications for both university and society. First, we must understand the power of students.So, here question raises Why Students?
Actually, students are energetic and take politics very seriously and rationally.They considered themselves as a kind of “incipient elite” destined for power and responsible for exercising their political power during the course of their studies.In addition, students are the back bone and politically well aware groups in the society. Particularly,they play their vital role for the social reforms, language policy and other matters related to its ground realities.Apart from this,many of the third world countries are multi-ethnic societies.Beside this, students are often more ideologically aware and oriented than the common masses. Even,there ideological interests come from a variety of sources including ,the nature of university environment, Education and psychology of students. In particular,students are a uniquely mobilisable group in the third world. Similarly, the reaction of political system to student’s activist movements help to shape their actions , orientations and there impact that have on society .Even, it’s a historical fact that student political activism and involvement contributed to the process of nation building and political organisation,as it is well said that ,
“A nation with a strong tradition of student activism causes students movement”
Indeed , there are many examples of revolutionary programs of Students that rapidly changed the world dimensions including, Education, Social, Economical and Political. Though, there are some activism which are observed less revolutionary in nature for instance right wings and so on.
But, here a question triggered why there is a wrong and negative concept of students activism imposed?
Actually ,this unprogressive narrative is trended by the rightist political parties and social sects such as religious parties, feudalists, capitalists, monarchs and members of parliament etc.
Because ,their existence, regressive thoughts and conservative beliefs are challenged and exposed by the leftist with their revolutionary behaviors .
There are a variety of social -psychological aspects of students activism that have received very little attention in the third world context.
Since the contextualization of student activism, relationship among the students, institutions, race, class, nation , geography or ground realities, knowledge and so forth.
After all, cluster and stratified politics are still, the alarming issues among the third world countries which are obstacles in the way of progressiveness where, the cluster politics is based on geography and region. Undoubtedly, the stratified Politics refers to ethnic and cultural groups.
Generally, speaking there are quite close differences among the Student activism and their ground realities in third world . suppose, in India campus based issues are sometimes linked to the broader political and ideological questions. As well as , social and economical conditions also affect the student political movement especially, in poor countries and their campus conditions. Therefore, this poor attitude and oppression led Students organization to be active and protest against the basic rights of students.
On the other hand, elite campus environment can also contribute to students political consciousness in their own directions and programs.
According to the field, in academic level mostly social sciences students are more active and involved in student Politics as compared to natural sciences Students. Even, Social sciences students are radical and liberals on the basis of their ideology ,which contain self selection criteria, mobilizing and dealing with societal issues.
But, it also differs among the third world countries where we see many students are more active belonged to natural sciences. In politics, Student activists are often among the most able students in terms of academic performances.
Additionally, many third world political systems are relatively intolerable of political activism. Where , in 1960s western nations were disrupted by student activist movements ever since there has not been much discussion on the topic in western academic circles.
The third world realities differ significantly from those in the western democracies. conversely, western “Bias “literature on student activism of third world countries led them to follow the behaviors of their Political parties nature and their programs. Because, the political framework is also closely distinguished in third world countries and there are many reasons for this close relationship between students and the political system in third world countries.
as mentioned here,
1..The mass media is weaker
2..competing political forces
3..parliamentary system is ineffective
4./non-existent trade unions
5..university students as one of the few easily mobilised and politically articulated groups in society that play crucial role in politics.
After all, there are some sole factors of Student Political activism were discussed below in which the
1.Repression of students in third world:
Indeed, government have also moved to impose much stricker control over the universities often creating problems for the effective functioning of academic system.
2.The academic environment in third world.
The students work in academic institutions including ,the curriculum policies have an important effect on the student activism and the process of learning .
The nature of curriculum can contribute to political consciousness.
Moreover, traditional practice in universities that cause family , ethnic and tribe group promotion.
3.Historical tradition of Student activism in third world:
in which National context ,National struggle, academic histories and course system played immense role in the nature and activeness in Students activism.
Moreover, there is also Ideological based political system found such as Indonesian national language 4th May by students.
In 1919 pre -revolutionary student activism of China Communist students struggle owing to the students involvement in national independent movement.
In particular, Students played an intellectual and cultural roles rather political in the development of the nation. In 19th and 20th centuries the ideology of Nationalism and later of Socialism and Marxism remained the key programs and policy of Students activism group to politicise and direct the people in the world phenomenon.
After that ,the ideology of colonialism was errupted by Russian Revolution, so, nationalist Intellectual thoughts and ideas emerged. But ,the historical tradition and context differ from country to country as well as the Sociological bond is also differed where ,majority of students don’t participate in political activism in different third world countries.
4.Most importantly, the
Ideological orientation of
Leftist orientation and nationalist are strong ideological interest ,anti -establishment and anti-regime of status quo.Because,the student politics as politics of idealism ,justice and social equality by Marxist point of view and it’s ideological interest. Even,Historically speaking, that students movement were rightist in Europe, then Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany caused many brutalities due to students support in 2nd world war .
Later, Nationalism and socialism as leftist orientation emerged as nationalist student movement in Russian Revolution in Oct 1917.
Finally, this question is raised that ,what is the future of Student Political Activism?
Infact ,Students still remain the key political actors in the third world.
A leftist wing movement may collapse and emerge later as a traditionalist student focus.But, some where the revolutionary movement can be underground by the oppositional movement in third world .But unfortunately today Student Political activism is not on the right track of rationalism and ideological rather than it is emotional and directionless, romanticism and consisting of Individuality and lacking straight forward demands.